Exceptions to Probable Cause Requirement

Overview of exceptions to probable cause requirement:

Many searches require neither probable cause nor a search warrant/authorization. If a person voluntarily consents to a search, no probable cause or warrant is needed. Searches incident to apprehension/arrest need no other probable cause than the underlying PC for the arrest/apprehension. Certain brief detentions–called “stops”– require only “reasonable suspicion,” and pat-down searches–called “frisks”–require only reasonable suspicion that the person is armed and dangerous. Inspections are technically not searches at all, but are rather administrative in nature, not criminal searches for evidence. A variety of inspections are not affected by Fourth Amendment requirements. Finally, emergency searches are also not affected by Fourth Amendment requirements

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