A general court-martial can adjudge the following punishments:
- Forfeitures of up to all pay and allowances
- Reduction to the lowest enlisted pay grade
- Punitive discharge (bad-conduct discharge, dishonorable discharge, or dismissal)
- For certain offenses, death. A sentence of confinement over ten years may only be adjudged with the concurrence of three-fourths of all court-martial members. A death sentence requires a unanimous decision of the jury.
A special courts-martial can adjudge the following punishments:
- Confinement for one year (only enlisted soldiers)
- Hard labor without confinement for up to three months
- Forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for up to one year
- Reduction to the lowest pay grade (enlisted members only)
- Bad-conduct discharge (enlisted members only)
- Summary Courts-Martial
A summary court-martial can adjudge the following punishments:
- 30 days confinement
- Hard labor without confinement for 45 days
- Restriction to specified limits for 45 days
- Forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for one month
- Reduction to the lowest pay grade.
- If an enlisted member is above the pay grade of E-4, the summary court-martial may not adjudge confinement or hard labor without confinement. It can only reduce the servicemember to the next lower pay grade.